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电子收款机系统,模拟拨号,嵌入式软件

电子收款机系统(POS)--先进的电子支付系统和拨号技术

电子支付工业

在当今的快节奏的消费品零售市场中,模拟拨号计费处理系统在所有电子支付配置中占了大多数。 GAO的模拟拨号技术支持诸如电子收款机(POS)、自动取款机(ATM)、多用途售货亭、自动贩卖机和处理内部交易,以及并未被公众知晓的后台服务和无处不在的交易。大多数拨号计费系统在低速下运作,从300bps到2.4Kbps。一些全功能拨号终端和后台服务系统能够达到56Kbps的高数据速率。传统的模拟拨号通信信道是基础,并将继续作为当今交易的支柱。

POS市场实情

  • 在北美有280亿交易额以及在EMEA的数十亿交易额都是利用拨号POS系统完成的。
  • 在美国,有1000万支付终端,目前超过60%是拨号终端。
  • POS终端可以使用很长时间,平均约为8年。
拨号POS
  • 占世界上所有支付终端的60%或更多。
  • 8-12秒的交易时间
  • 传统系统是可靠的和可信的
  • 低起动成本
  • 不必担心安全性



电子支付过程


当顾客将他们的借贷卡或信用卡插入POS终端时,交易即由读卡机提取发卡行标识代码(BIN)开始。BIN标识卡的类型为借卡或信用卡,还有发行机构(VISA, 万事达信用卡, 美国运通, 等等)。然后POS系统基于BIN来决定应该接入的网络,那个网络的电话号码,和其他用来尽可能迅速和安全地完成交易所需的操作参数。这些参数包括数据传送率,线路协议,同步或异步的,和加密类型及使用的密钥。

POS终端包括通过双线、模拟音频级电话线来运转的嵌入式模拟拨号调制解调器。当获得所有必需的信息时,POS终端初始化嵌入式调制解调器,拨叫适当的号码。一旦呼叫受到主机的响应,双方必需协商参数和同步他们的调制解调器,这在被称为“握手”的过程中完成。

POS调制解调器一般符合ITU-T V.21, V.22和V.22bis标准,它们各自的数据率是300bps,1.2Kbps和2.4Kbps。其他高速的规格包括V.32bis,V.34和V.90,它们各自的最高数据率是14.4Kbps,33.6Kbps和56Kbps。广泛使用的V.21,V.22和V.22bis标准提供一个快速的“握手”过程,又由于一个典型的事物数据消息仅仅占300字节或更少的区域,这些标准还能提供足够的数据率来在8-12秒完成处理。较高速度调制解调器典型地用于专门的支付及银行系统和后台部门,需要传送大量数据的内部经济业务处理系统。

为了控制数据流和确保无误差传送,两线协议之一要被协商:异步的或者同步的。




POS—数据流控制


异步线路协议

大多数的POS终端运行在异步的线路接口上。该协议使用7位数据分组、奇数奇偶校验,加上一个停止位。校验位用来检测传输中的错误。另外,异步的接口还使用了纵向冗余校验(LRC)。LRC是一个单独的字符,其对数据流使用了简单的XOR算法,来进一步检测传输中的错误。ACK/NAK协议也被使用以允许接收端通知发送端有错误传输。如果在传送之后收到返回的ACK字符,则发送方就知道数据已经被成功接收。如果返回了一个NAK字符,发送方就知道数据没有被成功接收,并将重新发送这些数据。

同步线路协议

一些终端使用同步的线路接口来运行。这种情况下,就需要使用SDLC协议作为查询接口,以确保主机和终端之间的成功传输。SDLC是面向比特的接口。SDLC还使用16比特的CRC来确保数据完整性。这考虑到了完整的8比特字符的传输,与那些仅能支持7比特字符的异步线路协议相反。支付处理机需要决定交易是否能在本地处理,还是它必须传输到另外的场所来处理。这个决定过程经常会消耗宝贵的时间。

本地授权

如果做出了交易能在本地处理的决定,这将是交易的最后站点。“处理”也许仅涉及那些被用来为可用结余提供粗略估计的交易记录和审计文件的创建。顾客的账户稍后将被更新。对于本地授权,处理交易的时间相对较快。

远端授权

当一笔交易或它的一部分必须在别处处理时,交易的时间和途径就会更加复杂。这通常由后端系统处理,这样数据必须被重新打包成能被后端系统使用的恰当的格式,然后被发送到其他的地点。当后端交易发生的时候,起初的进来的交易被支付处理机控制。这在交易上启动了一个额外的时钟,能够大大地延长原始请求的响应时间。当处理发生的时候对后端交易围绕全球是不寻常的。这会将总的交易时间潜在地增加30秒。

最终,不管是通过本地还是远端站点,都会返回一个响应。该响应经过原始主机并发送回原始设备。发送响应消息和收到确认表示终端已经成功接收。交易过程的最后一步就是设备和线路分离并挂机。

POS Payment
图1—POS支付

GGAO的POS解决方案

作为在嵌入式通信行业中长期存在的先驱者和开路人,GAO Research提供全系列的能推动当今和未来电子支付技术的电信软件。

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